Internationale organisationer International organizations
Verdensbanken, IMF m.fl. World Bank, IMF etc.
OSCE, Europarådet OSCE, Council of Europe (CoE)
EU European Union (EU)
ICTY - Tribunalet i Haag ICTY
Balkan, generelt The Balkans
Kosóva Kosóva [Kosovo]
Øst Kosóva / Presevo-dalen / Syd-Serbien Eastern Kosóva
Serbien Serbia-Montenegro. Serbia
Makedonien Macedonia [FYRoM]
USA United States (US)
Danmark (Norge, Sverige) Denmark (Norway, Sweden)
 Initialling ceremony for agreements on visa facilitation and readmission between the European Community and 3 Western Balkans Countries by Vice President Franco FRATTINI in Zagreb. Tomorrow in Zagreb a ceremonial initialling will take place on the visa facilitation and readmission agreements with Vice President Franco Frattini and the Ministers of Interior of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro.
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has also concluded the negotiations on such agreements today in Brussels. Serbia is in the final stages of their negotiations.
Vice-President Frattini remarked: "Today we have reached an important milestone. The conclusion of the negotiations on these agreements will directly benefit citizens. They are a clear and practical sign of our progressive and increasingly closer cooperation."
The mandates for the European Commission to conduct these negotiations were adopted by the Council on 13 November 2006. Negotiations were officially opened at a ceremony of 30 November 2006 in Brussels and were carried out during three official rounds.
The overall aim of the agreements is to make it easier for citizens of Western Balkan countries, in particular those who travel most, to acquire visas for the EU, whilst simultaneously having clear rules on combating illegal immigration. The initialled drafts of the Visa Facilitation agreements ensure to maintain the visa handling fee of 35€ instead of 60 € for all Western Balkan citizens and a total exemption from the visa fee for certain categories of applicants. Furthermore for certain categories of persons, e.g. businessmen, students and journalists, the necessary documents requested for supporting a visa application are simplified. For certain categories of frequent travellers the issuing of multi-entry visas with long periods of validity is provided. Finally, the holders of diplomatic passports are exempt from the visa obligation.
The initialled drafts of the agreements on readmission set out clear obligations and procedures for the authorities of both the Western Balkan countries and EU Member States as to when and how to take back people who are illegally residing on their territories. The draft agreements cover not only the illegally staying nationals of both parties but also third country nationals and stateless persons being in an irregular situation provided they have a clear link with the requested Party (e.g. visa or resident permit).
Full respect of Human Rights as provided by the European Convention of Human Rights will also be guaranteed during the application of the readmission agreements.
EU citizens are already exempt from the visa obligation by the Western Balkan countries.
The conclusion of visa facilitation agreements is to be seen as a concrete step forward along the path set out by the Thessaloniki agenda towards a visa free travel regime also for the citizens of Western Balkan countries. Visa facilitation should encourage the Western Balkan countries to implement relevant reforms and reinforce their cooperation at regional level and with the EU in areas such as strengthening the rule of law, fighting organised crime and corruption, and increasing their administrative capacity in border control and security of documents by introducing biometric data.
The Commission will now prepare the necessary procedural arrangements leading to formal signature of the agreements and subsequently start the process of ratification. All agreements should be concluded and enter into force before the end of 2007.
 Summary note on the joint report by Javier SOLANA, EU High Representative for the CFSP and Olli REHN, EU Commissioner for Enlargement, on the state of preparations of the future EU and international presence in Kosovo The joint report, which builds on the previous joint papers on the future EU role and contribution in Kosovo, submitted to the Council by Mr Solana and Mr Rehn, will be presented to foreign ministers at their informal meeting in Bremen on Friday.
The paper analyses the conditions for an effective future EU role in Kosovo and provides an update on the state of transition and implementation preparations. EU coherence will not only be crucial during the final stage of the Status process but equally during the implementation phase Local ownership and partnership with the international community should be key principles for the implementation of the Status settlement.
Mr Ahtisaari's Status settlement proposal provides for a four-month transitional period following the adoption of the Status settlement. During this time UNMIK will continue to fulfil its mandate on the basis of SC Resolution 1244. The Status settlement proposal foresees an important legislative agenda for the transition period, including the adoption of a constitution. At the same time, the Kosovo authorities will have to assume the competencies passed over from UNMIK. It is essential that both the Kosovo authorities and the various international actors are well prepared to face the challenges of transition. Since October 2006, the International Civilian Office (ICO)/EUSR Preparation Team and the EU Planning Team for an ESDP mission together with UNMIK are working with Kosovo authorities and key international partners to ensure that the required time and energy is invested.
Preparing for the International Civilian Office/EUSR and the ESDP mission
According to the Status settlement proposal the International Civilian Office (ICO) would be led by an International Civilian Representative (ICR), double-hated as EU Special Representative (EUSR). He/she is envisaged as carrying certain powers and authorities to enable him/her to ensure adherence to the letter and spirit of the Status settlement. The ICO will include and be supported by other partners, including the United States.
The ESDP Rule-of-Law mission will support the implementation of the Kosovo status settlement and assist Kosovo judicial authorities and law-enforcement agencies in their progress towards sustainability and accountability. These tasks will be carried out in full co-operation and coherence with the Commission. In accordance with the Status settlement proposal, the UN Security Council is expected to authorise the EU to establish a Rule of Law mission to support the implementation of the settlement and promote the development of the police and justice sectors in Kosovo and to decide that the mission will have executive powers in the judiciary sector (prosecution of major and organised crime, property rights, correctional services), in the police (organised crime, war crimes, inter-ethnic crimes, financial investigations, anti-corruption, border control, crowd and riot control) and in security-related and customs- compliance issues). Member states have expressed agreement with this mandate.
Kosovo's European Perspective
A tangible European perspective on the basis of the conclusions of the EU-Western Balkans Summit in June 2003 would reinforce the EU's leverage as a partner of the local institutions and enhance Kosovo's integration in the wider region. Concrete steps should therefore be taken to enable Kosovo to make further progress within the Stabilisation and Association Process after status is settled.
In particular, the Council should establish a European Partnership for Kosovo which would spell out the priorities for action for Kosovo to move closer to the EU, taking into account the essential requirements of the Status settlement. This should be accompanied by an enhanced technical and political dialogue as well as sufficient financial assistance.
EU approximation is a two-way process. Kosovo needs to meet the same conditions as the rest of the Western Balkans. At the same time, Kosovo should feel that the EU is committed to engage in contractual relations, foster regional cooperation and provide the same opportunities already available to the rest of the region. Strengthening good neighbourly relations will help to rebuild trust, to foster respect of cultural and religious differences and lay the basis for the reconciliation of future generations.
At the invitation of the Council, the Commission will be ready to prepare a feasibility study at the appropriate time to examine Kosovo's readiness to engage in contractual relations along the lines of those in the Western Balkan region. This should be conditional on Kosovo's implementation of the Status settlement and key European Partnership priorities, notably in the areas of the rule of law, the fight against corruption, good governance and public administration reform.
This will be supported inter alia by EC financial assistance; some €200 million have been allocated to Kosovo over the next three years.
We need to make sure that, when the EU assumes the leadership of the future international presence, sufficient resources, based on appropriate burden sharing by all donors, are available to facilitate the conditions for a successful intervention. Once the different costing elements are known more precisely, the Commission will prepare an overall financial package to be pledged at the Donors' Conference.
Following status, we can expect financing needs to arise in relation to:
1. Kosovo's share of the Yugoslav debt in the wake of status;
2. Expenditure as a result of the status requirements;
3. Kosovo's economic development needs (including institution building and capital investments); and
4. The cost of the international presence
Division of responsibilities
The division of responsibilities between the ICO, ESDP and the Commission will be clear and mutually reinforcing. Whereas the ICO and ESDP mission will support the local authorities to ensure settlement implementation and the consolidation of the area of rule of law, the Commission's role will focus in particular on assisting the authorities to increase their capacities to govern Kosovo with a long-term European perspective.
Security Council delegation on Kosovo heads to region tomorrow
23 April 2007 – A Security Council delegation heads tomorrow for Kosovo on a fact-finding trip as the 15-member body considers a United Nations envoy’s proposal to grant independence in a phased process to the ethnic Albanian-majority province of Serbia that has been run by the UN since 1999.
The mission – the fourth such trip by the Council since April 2000 – will visit Kosovo, Belgrade, Brussels and Vienna before returning on Sunday to UN Headquarters in New York, according to a letter from the Council’s monthly President to Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
The six-day trip is designed to give Council members a first-hand understanding of the political, social and economic situation inside Kosovo, and talks have been scheduled with the leaders of the province’s Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) and ethnic minority communities, as well as with the Serbian leadership.
The 15-member delegation, comprised of representatives of the Council’s current membership, is tasked with assessing Kosovo’s progress since the UN took over in 1999, particularly on the implementation of the agreed standards. Ambassador Johan C. Verbeke of Belgium will lead the group.
The agreed standards are a set of eight overall targets that include building democratic institutions, enforcing minority rights, creating a functioning economy and setting up an impartial legal system.
Today Council members received a closed-door briefing from Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guéhenno on the current situation on the ground in Kosovo, where the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) operates.
Mr. Guéhenno told reporters that he “did not paint a rosy picture” of the situation, adding that it would be valuable for Council members to see for themselves what conditions are like and whether the current uncertainty over Kosovo’s final status is helping or hindering progress.
He noted that while some advances have been made, and Kosovo is a long way forward on the events of 1999, more progress is needed on the economy, the issue of returns and Serbian participation in the PISG.
Last month, the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the future status process Martti Ahtisaari concluded that independence in a phased process with initial supervision by the international community was the only viable option for Kosovo.
Mr. Ahtisaari said in his report to Mr. Ban that the province, where ethnic Albanians outnumber Serbs and other minorities by nine to one, could only become politically stable and economically viable if it was independent because Kosovo’s PISG and Serbia could not reach agreement on even small, practical issues.
Any further delay in reaching a permanent solution would cause further stagnation, threaten democratic development and imperil any hopes at ethnic reconciliation, he said, adding that an international civilian and military presence would be needed for some time, focused especially on such areas as minority community rights, the rule of law, decentralization and the protection of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
Interim report on shootings in Kosovo cites Romanians attached to UN police unit
17 April 2007 – An interim report into violent clashes in Kosovo two months ago in which two protesters died and two were injured has found “substantial basis” on which to conclude that Romanian gunners linked to a United Nations specialized police unit were responsible, a spokesperson for the world body said today.
In his report to the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), which has run the Albanian-majority Serbian province since 1999, International Prosecutor Robert Dean also says that the Mission, the UN and Romania’s Government may also want to consider compensation for the victims and their families, the spokesperson added.
“The interim report states that there is a substantial basis on which to conclude that Romanian gunners attached to the Romanian Formed Police Unit were indeed responsible for the four woundings – two of which were fatal,” spokesperson Michelle Montas told reporters at UN Headquarters in New York.
“But there is not enough evidence right now pointing to which specific Romanian gunners were responsible for firing the wounding shots, and the evidence does not show at this time that the entire group of Romanian gunners acted unlawfully.” The report adds however that that there is a reasonable suspicion that three of the shootings constitute crimes under Kosovo law.
“In light of the above, the report says that the UN Mission, the UN, and the Government of Romania may consider initiating appropriate procedures for compensation for the surviving family members of those fatally shot and for those seriously wounded,” Ms. Montas said, stressing however that the investigation is continuing and the report is interim in nature.
UNMIK has repeatedly stated its commitment to ensuring a full and impartial investigation into the deaths, which occurred on 10 February in the capital Pristina when police used rubber bullets against pro-independence demonstrators. The protest followed the unveiling of UN proposals for the future status of the province.
April 20, 2007
The President of the Republic, Alfred Moisiu held a meeting with the President of Serbia, Boris Tadic' during the stay in Ohrid.
During this meeting it was discussed about the bilateral relations between our two countries and their further development in the trade and economic field, investments and cultural fields in order to create more room and opportunities to get to know better one another through these activities and exchange of information. Both presidents expressed their interest and commitment to enhance the overall bilateral cooperation by considering it a contribution to the security and stability of the Balkans. In this context, President Moisiu pointed out that it cannot be helped not to recognize the fact that our relations have been affected by the yet unresolved issue of Kosova.
Then the talks focused on the solution of the issue of the status of Kosova. President Moisiu and President Tadic' expressed different respective positions regarding this issue.
President Moisiu stressed that our concern regarding Kosova does stem only from the fact that we are naturally interested about it as Albanians, but because we judge that the solution of the issue of its status is a guarantee for peace and calmness in our region. Referring to the historic past of the Balkans, including that of a decade ago when the conflicts, wars and bloodshed did not lack, the Head of the Albanian state emphasized that we all must be realistic, must put the past behind and look towards the future. President Moisiu stressed that the solution without any further delays of the issue of the status of Kosova would fulfill the will of the majority of its population and for us this solution must be independence. “Kosova represents a unique case and the procrastination of the solution of its status would be risky and incomprehensible.” – stated President Moisiu and stressed that the plan of Mr. Ahtisaari as document of compromise of the two sides for the solution of the status, is acceptable to Albanians, but it must also be acceptable to the Serbs, to whom it offers no so little rights.
On his part, Mr. Tadic' expressed the position of the Serbian state regarding the issue of the status of Kosova, by pointing out that the plan of Mr. Ahtisaari gives more rights to the Albanians and less rights to the Serbs of Kosova and that is why, he as the President of Serbia must take the position to defend the rights of Serbs. “Whichever way the issue of the status of Kosova would be solved, it would come in a peaceful way.” – stressed President Tadic'.
These different views of the President of the Republic, Moisiu and the President of Serbia, Tadic' were also reflected during the press conference held after the conclusion of Ohrid Summit on power issues, after the present media inquired about the issue of the status of Kosova.
April 20, 2007
During the stay in Ohrid the President of the Republic, Alfred Moisiu held a heartfelt discussion with the President of Macedonia, Branko Crvenkovski who hosted the South East Europe heads of states Summit on power issues.
The Head of the Albanian state congratulated Mr. Crvenkovski about the organization of this summit which he considered as a successful one and pointed out that this meeting which comes as a follow up to the contacts of the regional presidents, serves to discuss the most actual problems faced by our region and to present views and alternatives for their efficient solution.
Then President Moisiu and President Crvenkovski praised the up to the present relations and the overall cooperation between our two countries and peoples and expressed the commitment to further intensify them. Both presidents pointed out the efforts of their respective countries to meet the standards required for integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures and expressed the conviction that the Adriatic 3 Charter countries will receive the invitation to join NATO in 2008.
April 20, 2007
The President of the Republic, Alfred Moisiu took part today in the Ohrid Summit (Macedonia) where it was discussed about securing long-term power resources as a precondition for the regional social and economic development. At the presence of his homologues from Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Head of the Albanian state addressed the Summit and expressed the interest of Albania to undertake concrete steps on national and regional scale for the successful facing of power problems.
The Head of state stressed the special actuality and importance of the power issue and dwelling on our country, stated that a balance power system, regarding the resources and covering of demand is viewed a significant factor for the development and integration of Albania into the regional and European structures. “We are a rich country in water resources, which under the present developments are being used only 30-33% of their capacities. We hope for this great natural potential under the conditions of the demand for clean power resources to become attractive to investors in the future.” emphasized Mr. Moisiu.
Then President Moisiu dwelled upon some of the internal measures that the Albanian state is undertaking to rehabilitate the existing power infrastructure, to develop new infrastructures by pointing out that at the same time a special attention is being paid to the future project aimed at strengthening the electric power interconnections with neighboring countries. “We think that regardless of the measures and interventions on a local level, the security to supply the consumers with power or the security of the country’s power system increasingly depends from the policies and developments on a regional level. In this context President Moisiu pointed out that “an alternative power supply resource for Albania would be also the imported gas supply by the connecting Albania to international gas network. We hope to develop the gas sector by using the domestic potentials and cooperating with our partners in the region and beyond for the development of the regional natural gas network, part of which would become also the Albanian network.”
Concluding, the Head of state expressed once again the interest and determination of the Albanian state to work with other regional countries in meeting the joint objectives aimed at increasing the security of power supply and also the strategic developments on the regional level to further stabilize and strengthen the regional power system.
The sessions of the Summit were concluded with the signing of a joint declaration by the South East Europe heads of states in which it was expressed the willingness and commitment to strengthen the full cooperation among the South East Europe countries as a precondition for stability, economic growth and prosperity in the framework of the wide European perspective. In this aspect it was stressed that the establishing of a functional, transparent and competing regional power market would be a significant step forward towards the future integration into the internal European market.
During the stay in Ohrid, President Moisiu is holding a series of bilateral meetings with homologues from the region.
April 26, 2007 The President of the Republic, Alfred Moisiu received today General Wesley Clarck, former Supreme Commander of the NATO Allied Forces in Europe.
Welcoming General Clarck to our country, the Head of state expressed the gratitude and high appreciation for the overall help that the United States has given towards developing and consolidating the democracy in our country. President Moisiu pointed out the serious efforts and important steps of the Albanian state to fulfil our major aspiration of integration into the European Union and NATO by emphasizing also that the holding of a constructive dialogue between the ruling majority and the opposition would have a great significance for the achievement of this objective.
During this meeting, the Head of state stressed that the United States is our number one ally and that Albania would be alongside it by being part of the Euro-Atlantic values. Referring to the news about the visit of the United States President, George W. Bush to Albania, President Moisiu emphasized that we view this visit as a reaffirmation of the excellent relations existing between Albania and the United States that carry on a great symbolic: a superpower builds relations of reciprocal respect and collaboration with a small country such as Albania. “This bares proof to the great values of the American democracy, which remains an inspiration source in our times.” – stated President Moisiu.
The interlocutors dwelled also upon the issue of resolving the status of Kosova by sharing the same views in this framework. President Moisiu highly praised the role and contribution that the United States has given in continuity for the major transformations that have taken place in the Balkans where Kosova consists in a culminating moment of these developments. The Head of state re-iterated the assessment of the Albanian state for the Plan of President Ahtisaari as a document of compromise, and also pointed out the significance of a speedy and non-procrastinated solution of the status issue by emphasizing that an independent Kosova will make our region more calm and stabilized.
On his part, Gen. Clarck stressed his best impressions about the positive transformations noticed during this first in our country since the year 2000 and expressed a special appreciation for the role and contribution of President Moisiu for the progress of our country. Referring to the up to the present relations between our two countries and peoples, General Clarck pointed out that Albania is one of the best allies of the United States and that we will continue to intensify the collaboration to our mutual benefit also in the future.
In today’s Meeting of the Council of Ministers, Prime Minister Berisha greeted the visit of the President of the United States of America, Mr. George W Bush, which is going to take place on June 10th 2007. In his speech, the Prime Minister said:
“June 10th marks a big, blessed and long awaited day for all Albanians. It is the day when Mr. George W Bush is going to visit Albania, and this will be the first visit that a President of the United States of America ever pays to our country. In the name of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Albania, I heartedly welcome this historical visit of the President of the USA, as the biggest event in the history of excellent relations between Albania and the great American nation, the world’s first and greatest superpower. This event also marks the most important visit in the history of the international relations of the Albanian Government. Albanians are proud and grateful for the continuous and precious support and assistance that the great American nation and the government of the United States of America have given them in their efforts for freedom, dignity, development and integration.
Since the declaration of independence until our days, during the most critical moments of national and personal freedom for Albanians, the United States of America have played a rescuing role for their rights and freedoms. After the proclamation of independence, racist plans aimed the further fragmentation of the Albanian soil and the annihilation through a new fragmentation of the just formed Albanian state, but one of the greatest men of the American nation, President Wilson, refused to sign the sinister agreement and stopped the further crumbling of the Albanian soil.
The government of the United States of America, headed by President George Bush, played a decisive role in the fall of communism all over the world, including Albania. It was the American institutions and government that gave to the just created Albanian democratic forces the strongest support, which enabled them to overthrow the hardest dictatorship of Europe by means of free vote.
During these last 15 years American institutions have given a substantial help and contribution for the development and consolidation of democratic values. American taxpayers and government helped the Albanian people by means of hundreds of million of dollars in technical, financial, economic, educational and military aid.
After the beginning of the conflicts in the Balkans initiated by the Balkans’ Sadaam, Slobodan Milosevic, it was President Bush that, by the end of ’92, would put boundaries to Milosevic regarding Kosovo. These boundaries made clear that he would have to face the American military power if he disembarked his army in Kosovo.
In 1999, when Milosevic decided to over cross these boundaries and begun the implementation of his extermination and deportation plan against Kosovo Albanians, another great American statesman, President Clinton, headed the North Atlantic Alliance in its first battle outside the territories of the member states to protect the freedoms and rights of Kosovo Albanian citizens.
The USA has always supported the aspirations of all nations for freedom and independence. Therefore the dream of Kosovo Albanians for a free, independent and democratic state finds support and understanding in the administration of President George W Bush.
In this context, the visit of President Bush testifies the appreciation of the President of the greatest country in the planet for the most friendly, loving and grateful feelings that Albanians have towards the United States of America, the great American nation, the government of the USA and President Bush.
This visit is a proof of the excellent and loyal cooperation in all fields between Albania and the USA these last 15 years. Albania and Albanians feel privileged and proud for this cooperation and will stand by the United States wherever they are.
This visit is an undeniable assessment for the comprehensive reforms undertaken by our government and a great support for these reforms, which aim the implementation and consolidation of the rule of law in Albania, the fight against organized crime and corruption, the consolidation of standards, criteria and norms that make Albania ready for integration in NATO and the European Union.
This visit is not only an assessment for us, it is also a great encouragement to continue our course of reforms, to continue our struggle for the implementation and consolidation of the rule of law as the most important condition for the success of our reforms, as the most important condition for the development of a free society and the market economy.
The Council of Ministers welcomes the visit of the great man of the American nation, Mr. George W Bush, to Albania and expresses its strong belief that Albanians of all ages, political and religious beliefs, who look forward to this visit, shall know how to express their friendly and most welcoming feelings to the President of the United States, their most distinguished friend, thus transforming the 10th of June in the biggest celebration of the relations between our countries and nations.”
I am here to inform you that I have submitted my irrevocable resignation to Prime Minister, Mr. Berisha. I take this opportunity to emphasize that my experience, at the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the most extraordinary and richest one in my life. It is a precious experience and I avail myself of this opportunity to thank all those that have contributed and supported me in gaining this experience. First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to the Prime Minister, Mr. Berisha, who three months ago, admitted in the annual analysis of the government for 2006, that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Albanian Diplomacy have been very successful in accomplishing its mission.
I thank the Diplomatic Corps in Tirana, with which I have had a very open, sincere and ongoing dialogue. Let me assure the Diplomatic Corps and the governments they represent that I shall keep on the open and friendly dialogue.
Albania has already many friends, which is a precious capital. I thank the Diplomatic Corps of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, with which I have worked with transparency and full devotion for the fulfillment of the program of the Albanian government.
I would as well, take this opportunity to highlight that I shall put this rich experience to the benefit of attaining the Government’s goal for deep and overall reforms, which will ensure the fulfillment of those standards for NATO and EU integration, without which there can be no integration to EU or to NATO. I am convinced that the Albanian society has the necessary energies and vision for the accomplishment of these objectives.
Mr. Leigh met yesterday and today with President Moisiu, Prime Minister Berisha, Foreign Affairs Minister Mustafaj, European Integration Minister Bregu and opposition leaders Edi Rama and Ilir Meta to discuss Albania’s EU path. Mr. Leigh underlined that Albania’s Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) is a solid framework for Albania to move closer to the EU. He made clear however that better co-operation between political parties and above all stability is required for successful SAA reforms. This is essential for Albania to move further towards the EU: "Fulfilling SAA commitments requires difficult reforms in fields such as the judiciary, property rights and corruption. This requires co-operation between political parties and above all stability. The summer presidential election will be a chance to show that Albanian politicians can work together in the national interest.
The EU is committed to Albania's European future. The Commission is providing more than €200m in assistance funding for Albania over the next three years. But the final responsibility for moving Albania closer to the Union lies with its political leaders. Only together can Albanians tackle the tough tasks the country faces on its road to the EU."
Danske fagforeninger vil skaffe albanerne tag over hovedet. Det sker som led i LO’s indsamlingskampagne under sloganet “Gør noget”. Se nærmere på: http://www.gornoget.dk/; dér kan man også se hvordan det går med indsamlingen (klik på diagrammet på siden).
Af Anders Wedel Berthelsen.
Vand drypper ned fra loftet og danner søer på betongulvet. Maling skaller af, og puds drysser af væggene. På trappegelænderet er de fleste pyntekugler forsvundet eller løse som i “Huset på Christianshavn”.
Den albanske fagbevægelse bor på anden sal lige midt i hovedstaden Tirana - på en af de brede boulevarder tæt på Skanderbeg-pladsen med ministerierne, operaen og nationalmuseet. Men fagbevægelsen er sagt op.
Retten har afgjort, at fagforeningsbygningen skal gives tilbage til den person, der ejede matrikelnummeret før kommunisternes magtovertagelse. Det sker efter, at den albanske regering har besluttet at privatisere offentlig ejendom.
Til gengæld har regeringen pligt til at skaffe nye lokaler til fagbevægelsen. Det er ikke sket, så fagbevægelsen bliver boende, mens den chikaneres af den nye ejer, som lader lokalerne forfalde.
- “Vi har tre muligheder,” siger Kole Nikollaj, formand for KSSH, som er Albaniens pendant til det danske LO.
- Vi kan håbe på, at regeringen giver os tag over hovedet.
- Vi kan flytte ud til vores tillidsrepræsentantskole i udkanten af Tirana, men den trænger også til en kraftig renovering.
- Eller vi kan forsøge at købe nogle nye lokaler i centrum.
Fagbevægelsen i Region Syddanmark har besluttet at hjælpe den albanske fagbevægelse med at få nyt tag over hovedet. Det sker som led i LO’s indsamlingskampagne under sloganet “Gør noget”. Fagbevægelsen håber at kunne skaffe cirka 260.000 kroner til albanerne.
En gruppe syddanske fagforeningsfolk har derfor besøgt KSSH i den albanske hovedstad. De inspicerede både den omstridte bygning i bymidten og tillidsrepræsentantskolen tre-fire kilometer fra centrum ad hullede og overfyldte veje.
Tillidsrepræsentantskolen (TUSA) er indrettet i en del af det tidligere Stalin Tekstilkombinat. På pladsen foran kombinatet tronede Stalin på en sokkel, men nu er kun soklen tilbage.
Skolens indre er fyldt med kontraster.
Her findes fine kontorer og undervisningslokaler, som Danida og SiD var med til at renovere i 1990’erne. Andre lokaler ligner et spøgelseshus og er fyldt med ragelse og støv. I et af rummene flyder det med kasserede bøger -fra russiske romaner til marxistisk teori. Hverken russerne eller marxismen er længere i høj kurs i Albanien. Det er til gengæld computere og kopimaskiner.
Både på fagforeningskontorerne og på tillidsrepræsentantskolen genkender danskerne mange af deres gamle maskiner, som lastbiler har fragtet til Tirana. Efter inspektionsturen besluttede den danske delegation at give grønt lys for indsamling af penge til albanerne. Lykkes det KSSH at købe eller leje nye lokaler, skal pengene gå til renovering og indflytning. Lykkes det ikke, vil støtten fra Danmark gå til renovering og indretning af nye kontorer og mødelokaler i det nedslidte Tekstilkombinat.
KESH Organiserer 100.000 lønmodtagere - Det er meget uheldigt, at KSSH bliver sat ud af de kontorer, forbundet har haft siden 1991. Vi tvivler på, at den nuværende konservative regering i Albanien vil opfylde sin forpligtelse til at finde nye lokaler til fagbevægelsen. Regeringen gør store anstrengelser for at ødelægge fagbevægelsen, siger en af deltagerne, Johnny Laursen fra 3F Transport i Odense.
- Vi er meget taknemmelige for den danske støtte, siger Kole Nikollaj, formand for KSSH. - Vi er i en fase, hvor vi forsøger at blive en større faktor i det albanske samfund og at hverve flere medlemmer. Derfor er det vigtigt at være synlig, så vi håber at kunne blive i centrum tæt på ministerierne.
I 1990'erne rystedes verdenssamfundet af Jugoslaviens blodige opløsning. Opløsningen var et resultat af interne stridigheder mellem Jugoslaviens republikker. Slovenien og Kroatiens løsrivelse i 1991 blev startskuddet til de blodigste krigshandlinger i Europa siden 2. Verdenskrig.
På Balkan blev der fra 1992 til 1995 udkæmpet en voldsom krig. Etniske udrensninger, koncentrationslejre, massegrave og folkedrab var ord og begreber, der alt for hyppigt i denne periode prægede de danske avisoverskrifter og nyhedsudsendelser. I eftertiden er massakren i landsbyen Srebrenica, hvor over 7.000 bosnisk muslimske drenge og mænd blev dræbt, blevet selve symbolet på den brutalitet, hvormed krigen i det tidligere Jugoslavien blev udkæmpet.
I Boris Tadic har man i Serbien dog fået en præsident, der måske kan være med til at skabe et mere fredeligt hjørne af Europa. Tadic har undskyldt massakren ved Srebrenica og har rakt hånden ud mod de gamle fjender. Balkanekspert Niels Aadal Rasmussen er i studiet og vil fortælle historien om præsidenten, Serbien og dets fremtid blandt mistænksomme nabolande.
PARIS, Apr 25 (Tanjug) - Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Draskovic said Wednesday in an interview to leading French papers Le Figaro, La Croix and Le Point that a possible UN Security Council decision to grant independence to Kosovo would be the first such decision in UN history and that it would violate the UN Charter. This is not a job for the UN SC. Its job is to respect and implement the UN Charter, he said. UN Envoy Martti Ahtisaari has ignored numerous examples of autonomy in the world and proposed to the UN SC a solution such as has never been adopted in UN history and which violates its Charter, he said quoted by a release of the Serbian Foreign Ministry. In the past eight years that Kosovo has been administered by the UN and interim institutions, 220,000 Serbs were expelled from the province and one thousand were killed, and 40,000 Serb homes and about 150 centuries-old churches and monasteries were destroyed, Draskovic said. Asked what he expects from the UN SC mission which will visit Belgrade and Kosovo-Metohija, he expressed his conviction that the mission will determine that the 2005 report of the then UN secretary-general's Special Envoy Kai Eide was truthful. Eide stated in his report that the standards set out in the UN SC Resolution 1244 were not implemented. By supporting Ahtisaari's settlement plan for Kosovo, the US, UK and France violated not only the UN Charter, but also the decisions of their own governments, which recognized that Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia three times in the 20th century - in 1913, 1918 and after World War II, Draskovic said.
Belgrade, April 26, 2007 - Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica met today with a delegation of the mission of the UN Security Council, led by Belgian Ambassador to the UN Johan Verbeke and underlined that it is very important that the mission establishes the real level of fulfilment of standards in Kosovo-Metohija and implementation of UN SC Resolution 1244.
He said that Serbia participated in a constructive manner at the negotiations in Vienna and offered a proposal for the future status of Kosovo, based on fundamental principles of international law, the UN Charter, Resolution 1244 and the Serbian Constitution, and that is substantial autonomy within Serbia.
The Serbian Prime Minister said that the proposal of Martti Ahtisaari is not the result of the negotiations, but the UN Special Envoy took into consideration only the interests of the Albanian side -. He added that Ahtisaari's plan is illegitimate and illegal and that it violates the UN Charter and the Serbian Constitution.
Kostunica underlined that blackmail and threats of Albanian separatists if Kosovo-Metohija does not become independent are impermissible and stressed that the international community must immediately react in the harshest manner to blackmail.
The UN Charter guarantees sovereignty and territorial integrity to all states and Serbia cannot and must not be an exception.
The facts clearly speak that UN SC Resolution 1244 is not respected in Kosovo-Metohija, the Serbian Prime Minister said and added that two-thirds of the Serbian and other non-Albanian population has been expelled from the province, 200,000 Serbs cannot return to their homes, churches and monasteries are being destroyed although many of them are under the protection of UNESCO, and Serbian houses have been destroyed and looted.
Serbs live in isolated enclaves, they are victims of ethnically-motivated violence every day and the perpetrators of that violence are not being sought after and punished, Kostunica reiterated.
He said that 40,000 Serbs used to live in Pristina, while today there are only 87 of them and asked why Serbs, if they cannot return to some distant areas, cannot return to Pristina either. He underlined that there is no multi-ethnicity in Kosovo-Metohija and that the only multi-ethnic city in the province today in Northern Mitrovica.
The Prime Minister said that the real situation in Kosovo does not correspond to reports submitted by UNMIK chiefs to the SC and invited members of the mission to visit enclaves, Serbs in collective centres and talk with them.
Kostunica stressed that the Serbian government expects from the UN SC to take measures to provide return of 200,000 exiled Serbia and to create conditions for their normal life as well as to thoroughly examine application of all standards from UN SC Resolution 1244 and to start new and real negotiations.
The Prime Minister handed over the documents precisely listing all ethnically motivated crimes against the Serbs in the province and no investigation of those crimes. The documents also contain precise data on number of exiled Serbs living in collective centres.
Belgian Ambassador to the UN Johan Verbeke said that the aim of the visit of the UN SC mission is to get assured of the real situation in Kosovo-Metohija and to make a report on it.
Coordinator of the negotiating team for Kosovo-Metohija Slobodan Samardzic expounded on negotiations on the future status of Kosovo-Metohija in Vienna.
Samardzic recalled that only one of those meetings was organised on top level – on June 24, 2006, whereas 15 meetings referred to technical issues, noting that from September 2006 to February 2007 there was not a single meeting.
He added that after Ahtisaari presented his proposal, meetings referred only to six chapters of that plan whereas seven chapters were not discussed at all. Samardzic also said that amendments that Belgrade proposed were rejected.
Coordinator of the negotiating team for Kosovo-Metohija Leon Kojen presented Belgrade’s plan for substantial autonomy of Kosovo-Metohija.
President of the Coordinating Centre for Kosovo-Metohija Sanda Raskovic-Ivic told the mission members that according to UNHCR, only 5% of the exiled returned home, whereas the Serbian data shows that the percentage is even smaller than 2%.
Raskovic-Ivic recalled that since 1999 there have been 7,000 assaults against Serbs, 4,500 of which were firearm attacks. She added that 931 Serbs were killed while UNMIK is investigating only 90 cases.
Washington –- Following an April 23-24 visit by the U.N. Security Council to Brussels, Belgium; Belgrade, Serbia; and Kosovo’s capital, Pristina, the United States plans to co-sponsor a U.N. resolution that would allow Kosovo’s provisional government to declare independence, U.S. Under Secretary of State R. Nicholas Burns says.
“We must now act quickly in the next weeks and months to finish the job by helping to lead Kosovo to independence,” Burns said April 17 in testimony to the House Foreign Affairs Committee. Burns is under secretary of state for political affairs, the third-ranking official at the State Department.
Following 18 months of negotiations, U.N. Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari on April 3 formally proposed to the Security Council that Kosovo be granted independence while temporarily remaining under international supervision. (See related article.)
Kosovo, a province of Serbia, is administered by the United Nations under U.N. Resolution 1244, passed in June 1999 when a NATO campaign drove Yugoslav Serbs out of Kosovo, halting years of violence and human rights abuses.
Under the Ahtisaari plan, “Kosovo will become independent but will continue a period of international tutelage for a number of years,” Burns told lawmakers. “NATO, for example, will continue to police Kosovo’s borders and maintain internal peace until Kosovo is ready to form its own armed forces. The European Union will lead the major international civilian effort to ensure that the settlement of the Ahtisaari plan is fully implemented.”
Several lawmakers expressed concerns that granting independence to Kosovo would set a dangerous precedent for other breakaway regions. Independence is strongly opposed by Serbia and by Kosovo Serbs. Russia, which holds veto power on the Security Council, has expressed concerns.
“A solution that’s imposed from the outside, unless the parties both agree, is going to lead to a real military problem, in my opinion, down the road,” Representative Howard Berman, a California Democrat, warned Burns.
Burns stressed that the United States and its European allies consider Kosovo’s history of oppression under now-deceased Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to be a unique situation that does not set a precedent for other separatist movements. (See related article.)
Burns also said Ahtisaari spent 18 months trying to achieve a compromise, but the government in Belgrade “made a political decision not to participate” meaningfully in the negotiation. Belgrade also pressured Kosovo Serbs to stay away from negotiations, he said.
The U.N. Security Council has five permanent members and 10 elected members. A Security Council decision requires approval by nine of the 15 members. However, the five permanent members -– China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States -– can veto a decision. U.S. and European diplomatic efforts in the weeks ahead are focused on persuading Russia not to veto a Kosovo resolution.
The current 10 elected members of the Security Council are Belgium, the Republic of Congo, Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Panama, Peru, Qatar, Slovakia and South Africa.
At the suggestion of Russia, all 15 ambassadors on the Security Council plan to visit Belgrade and Pristina, as well as Brussels, during the week of April 23.
“We felt it would be to the advantage of those countries to be able to meet the Serb leadership in Belgrade and the Albanian and Serb leadership in Pristina,” Burns said. Security Council ambassadors also will meet in Brussels with NATO Secretary-General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer and with the European Union's foreign policy chief, Javier Solana of Spain.
In the weeks following the visit to the region, the United States plans to co-sponsor a resolution that would replace U.N. Resolution 1244, which currently governs Kosovo, Burns said. “This resolution will not actually confer independence on Kosovo,” Burns said, adding that the United States does not believe the United Nations has the right under international law to create an independent state.
Instead, the proposed resolution “will remove political and legal impediments to independence,” Burns said. The proposed resolution also would mandate continued international supervision by the European Union and NATO.
“Once the resolution is passed, we would think that … the Kosovar leaders would declare their own independence,” Burns said. “And then the United States and other countries would recognize that independence.”
The U.S. goal, Burns said, “is to bring the Kosovo status process to a timely and successful conclusion by the end of this spring.”
House Foreign Affairs Chairman Tom Lantos, a Democrat from California, said the Kosovo proposal appears to have been “shaped with wisdom and patience” by Ahtisaari.
“Clearly, this is not a perfect solution,” Lantos said. “I would have preferred something different. But there is no better settlement in sight. There is no more time to wait.”
Transcripts of statements at the hearing by Lantos and Burns are available on the House Foreign Affairs Committee Web site.
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New York -- Negotiations on Kosovo's future status have reached the "crucial and final stage," the U.S. special envoy for Kosovo status talks says, and the international community should accept the U.N. settlement plan to help bring peace and stability to southeastern Europe.
"The United States believes the time is at hand. Kosovo needs to be settled. It can't be left dangling and we are determined to do everything in our power to make sure the issue is settled," Ambassador Frank Wisner, the secretary of state's special envoy for Kosovo, said April 4.
"We have a chance to bring to a conclusion the last of the territorial quarrels that erupted in the wake of the collapse of the former Yugoslavia, the last of the areas of uncertainty in southeastern Europe; a chance to establish a stable environment with clarity, so that people in the region know what their choices are and where they are headed," Wisner said.
On April 3, the U.N. Security Council held its first session with U.N. special envoy Martti Ahtisaari to discuss his proposal on Kosovo's status.
Under its 1999 resolution (UNSC Resolution 1244), which placed Kosovo under U.N. administration and envisioned a political process to determine Kosovo's final status, the Security Council has the responsibility to determine a settlement.
Ahtisaari, who spent 15 months talking with Serbian and Kosovo officials, concluded after exhaustive negotiations that independence is the only option to ensure Kosovo's political and economic stability. Under his plan, Kosovo would be a multiethnic society with the culture, language and educational policy of all communities protected and promoted. The Serbian Orthodox Church also would be safeguarded. The NATO-led Kosovo force would continue to provide security and an international civilian representative would oversee the settlement. (See related article.)
Speaking at the New York Foreign Press Center, Wisner said that the United States supports Ahtisaari’s conclusions and sees them as "fair, sensible" and "skillfully negotiated." Independence is the only choice, he said.
The issue has reached a culminating point and further delay in arriving at a long-promised settlement would cause only more instability, he said. Pointing to the violence that erupted in March 2004, he said the "status quo is simply not an option."
New negotiations would not bring any better solution than the one at hand, Wisner added. "Every reasonable avenue has been explored" by Ahtisaari, he said.
Serbia strongly opposes independence, but given the circumstances of the past 15 years, Wisner said, "there is no way, in short, that the Albanian speaking majority [in Kosovo] would ever accept to go back under the rule of Serbia."
"We recognize Serbia has the strongest views over maintaining its sovereignty over Kosovo," the ambassador said.
Other issues related to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia – the status of Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina -- have been settled, he said. "It is now Kosovo that needs to be settled," he said.
The United States has a long-standing and very deep relationship with the Republic of Serbia, Wisner said. "We want to build on that relationship. We believe we can do it better when the problems of the area are settled."
Negotiations in the U.N. Security Council will be intense, the ambassador acknowledged. Russia, which has veto power in the council, has reservations about the plan.
Nevertheless, Wisner said, Russia has been part of the deliberations from the beginning. "We would like ... to end this association over Kosovo in the same spirit of collaboration and cooperation that we began it."
"Our objective is: That which we began together, let's end together," he said.
SOLUTION URGENTLY NEEDED
Wisner said that there will be ample opportunity to discuss and consider Ahtisaari's proposal over the next weeks. Opposition "can only be overcome through the active exercise of diplomacy -- lay out choices, talk them through, think of the road ahead, reflect on basic and core interests."
From the U.S. perspective, the proposal is "overwhelmingly clear and so urgently needed that the odds of the right conclusion being reached by [the] Security Council are quite clear," Wisner said.
Kosovo is "of vital significance" to Europe and the United States, the ambassador said. "Europe's southeastern stability depends on a settlement in Kosovo." (See related article.)
"Europe provides a substantial portion of the troops that are deployed under NATO command. Europe is a major contributor to the economic environment, and the support of present [U.N.] mission," the ambassador said. Approximately 17,000 international troops, including 1,700 Americans, continue to serve under NATO’s Kosovo Force, also known as KFOR.
"We went to war over this issue, we have 1,700 American soldiers on the ground, we are major contributors to the peacekeeping and U.N. costs in Kosovo,” Wisner said. “We've made our statement. This is important to us."
The future for Serbia, Kosovo, and the rest of the region "lies inside of Europe not as some island off the shore with no association with Europe," Wisner also said.
Kosovo today is a poor nation, with 50 percent of its people unemployed, he said. "It can't move ahead unless it has sovereignty, but it will not move ahead to its fullest without being part of Europe."
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Washington -- The United States believes that if Kosovo is separated from Serbia under a U.N. plan, the move would not set a precedent for other breakaway regions, particularly the “frozen conflicts” near the boundaries of the former Soviet Union.
“Kosovo is not a precedent for any other situation,” the State Department’s Daniel Fried told reporters March 12. Fried is assistant secretary of state for European and Eurasian affairs.
U.N. Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari is negotiating a settlement on the future status of Kosovo, a province of Serbia that has been administered by the United Nations since the 1999 NATO war. The international intervention ended human rights abuses by Yugoslav Serb security forces but also put on hold a drive for independence by Kosovo separatists. Kosovo’s ethnic Albanians seek independence. Serbia and ethnic Serbs within Kosovo strongly oppose independence. Ahtisaari is expected to make his recommendation to the U.N. Security Council by the end of March. (See related article.)
Serbia’s prime minister, Vojislav Kostunica, warned March 11 that independence for Kosovo would be a “dangerous precedent” for the United Nations. Russian diplomats also have warned that an independent Kosovo would set a precedent for breakaway regions, such as Abkhazia, Chechnya, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria, in and around the former Soviet Union. Except for Chechnya, these disputes are known as “frozen conflicts” because their outcomes have remained unresolved since the early 1990s.
It is the diplomatic position of the United States that Kosovo represents a unique situation, with an unprecedented level of involvement by the U.N. Security Council and NATO. Between 1993 and 1999, the U.N. Security Council issued seven resolutions on Kosovo, four of them in 1998 when Serbian forces responded to an armed uprising by uprooting Kosovo Albanian communities, creating hundreds of thousands of refugees and killing at least 2,000 Albanians. NATO’s 78-day military campaign required a consensus decision by all 19 member nations at the time, and 17,000 NATO-led forces continue performing peacekeeping duties in Kosovo today, primarily protecting minority Serb communities.
“There are a great many parts of the world that have issues between minority and majority communities,” Fried told reporters at the State Department during a March 12 roundtable talk. “There are a great many parts of the world that have separatist communities.”
“There is no situation anywhere in the world that bears a resemblance to Kosovo,” Fried said. “There is no place where the U.N. has been administering for seven -- now close to eight -- years. There is no case where NATO was forced to intervene to stop a massive process of ethnic cleansing.” (See related article.)
U.S. officials also stress that the current, democratically elected government is not responsible for the actions of Slobodan Milosevic, who was the Yugoslav president at the time of the intervention in Kosovo. Milosevic was voted out of office in October 2000. When he attempted to manipulate voting results, a nonviolent democratic uprising removed him from power. The following year, he was transferred to the Netherlands to face a war-crimes tribunal in The Hague. He died there, in prison, in 2006.
“AN IDEAL SET OF CHOICES IS NO LONGER ATTAINABLE”
“The choices the international community faces in Kosovo are not an ideal set of choices,” Fried said. “An ideal set of choices is no longer attainable. The ideal set of choices went away as Yugoslavia broke up. And, as I said [during a recent visit] in Belgrade, Yugoslavia didn’t break up so much as it was murdered by extreme nationalists.”
“Kosovo,” he added, “is not a precedent for any other area, whether that’s Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Chechnya, Transnistria, Corsica or Texas.” In U.S. history, Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836 and was an independent republic for nine years before joining the United States.
In a news conference March 10 in Vienna, Austria, Ahtisaari said his Kosovo proposal “is a realistic compromise, ensuring the functionality of Kosovo, and at the same time, catering to the need of the Kosovo Serb community and other minority communities.”
He stressed that a permanent peace settlement will create economic benefits for Kosovo and its surrounding region. “No one dares invest in a country the status of which is unsure,” he said, citing what he called “totally … an unacceptable level” of unemployment.
Ahtisaari also said those who claim Kosovo would set a dangerous precedent are voicing “unnecessary concern. … You can make a debating point, but that’s as far as it goes.”
The U.N. envoy said he has dealt with numerous conflicts in his diplomatic career, and each conflict has its own unique circumstances and level of involvement by the international community.
“There is very little unity in these conflicts,” Ahtisaari said. He said he wished every conflict could be resolved by the U.N. Security Council. However, he added, “as long as you have five permanent members of the council, one is enough to say, ‘Sorry, I don’t agree.’”
Ahtisaari’s negotiations began in late 2005 at the direction of then U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan. (See related story.)
In January 2006, the International Contact Group for Kosovo – made up of France, Germany, Italy, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States -- released a statement on the future of Kosovo. The statement ruled out a return of Kosovo to full Serbian control as well as any partition of Kosovo, or any union of Kosovo with any other country, or part of another country.
I 2006 kunne OSCE byde velkommen til medlemsland nummer 56. Kun to uger efter at have stemt for uafhængighed ved en folkeafstemning bad Montenegro om optagelse. Forinden havde den nye stat erklæret, at den accepterede alle OSCE-forpligtelser. Montenegro så også gerne en fortsat OSCE-tilstedeværelse for at hjælpe landet med dets reformbestræbelser. Kort efter blev organisationens 18. feltmission etableret. Montenegros hurtige optagelse viser, at OSCE fortsat øver tiltrækning for lande, der ikke er medlem af EU og NATO.
OSCE spiller stadig en vigtig rolle. Historisk bidrog organisationens forløber, Helsingfors-processen, til Murens fald og den kolde krigs afslutning. I dag er organisationen fortsat et forum for en åben og direkte dialog inden for de tre dimensioner på det sikkerhedspolitiske-militære, det menneskeretlige og det økonomisk-miljømæssige område mellem lande i Europa, Nordamerika, Kaukasus og Centralasien. Det er en platform til på en og samme tid at styrke de transatlantiske bånd og inddrage Rusland i den europæiske sikkerhedsarkitektur.
Men OSCE er i lige så høj grad et praktisk instrument. Dets 18 missioner og 3 institutioner støtter og vejleder nye demokratier om udarbejdelse af forfatninger og love, træning af politi og dommere, opbygning af frie medier og beskyttelse af mindretal. Organisationen hjælper med at opbygge aktive civilsamfund og støtter menneskerettighedsforkæmpere – vigtigt i en situation, hvor den demokratiske udvikling er gået i stå eller viser tilbageskridt i visse lande. OSCE spiller også hovedrollen i valgobservationer og er mægler i en række fastlåste konflikter. Med udgangspunkt i OSCE-forpligtelserne – et demokratisk regelsæt – holder landene hinanden fast på fundamentale værdier og forsøger at tage hånd om problemer, inden de udarter sig til kriser.
De senere år har OSCE imidlertid også været under pres. Især Rusland insisterer på en ”reform” af organisationen. Denne dagsorden fyldte meget i 2006. Som svar vedtog ministerrådsmødet i Bruxelles i december en pakke med effektiviseringstiltag. Det er et dansk ønske, at OSCE herefter i højere grad igen skal koncentrere sig om sine kerneopgaver.
Tegningesagen kom også på OSCE’s dagsorden i 2006. Der blev afholdt to særmøder som opfølgning på sagen, og aspekter fra sagen indgik i en række andre møder og konferencer. OSCE-formandens personlige repræsentant mod diskrimination af muslimer besøgte Danmark i maj 2006.
Udenrigsministeriet har sammen med Dansk Institut for Internationale Studier (DIIS) og i tæt samarbejde med ligesindede donorer og samarbejdspartnere i en række udviklingslande udarbejdet et analyseredskab (Countering Radicalisation through Development Assistance – a Country Assessment Tool), der ser på sammenhængen mellem forhold, der kan lede til radikalisering og rekruttering til terrorisme samt på, hvordan udviklingsindsatser bedst kan tage højde for disse sammenhænge.
Dokumentet slår fast, at radikaliseringsprocesser er komplekse. De faktorer, der fører til radikalisering i eet samfund, kan meget vel bane vejen for reformer og fremskridt i et andet. Derfor må indsatserne planlægges med stor forståelse for den konkrete kontekst. De skal indgå i og målrettet støtte en social og økonomisk udvikling, der rækker ud til de områder og befolkningsgrupper, som føler sig udstødte og marginaliserede.
Mange forskellige slags indsatser er derfor relevante, hvis man skal forsøge at imødegå radikaliseringsprocesser. Danmark yder allerede støtte til en del af de områder, der står centralt, så som støtte til politiske og juridiske reformer, korruptionsbekæmpelse, reform af politi- og fængselsvæsen, fremme af beskæftigelse, uddannelse og øget adgang til offentlige serviceydelser. Arbejdet har dog også peget på vigtigheden af andre mindre velkendte indsatstyper; som f.eks. støtte til lokale samfundsledere, facilitering af dialog med radikale, indsatser mod radikal propaganda og vigtigheden af at skabe en neutral platform for samarbejde.
[PDF-dokument kan downloades fra: http://www.um.dk/NR/rdonlyres/2E032131-AC5A-43A6-B238-3F8328DF3859/0/CountryAssessmentTool.pdf]
Transcript of Remarks and Replies to Media Questions by Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov At Joint Press Conference with Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica of Serbia, Belgrade, April 19, 2007
Foreign Minister Lavrov: First of all, I wish to once again thank my Serbian friends for the traditional cordiality and hospitality. All the meetings we have today been holding on issues in Russian-Serbian relations bear out the disposition of our two countries to develop the closest partnership in all fields. All that which President Vladimir Putin agreed upon with President Boris Tadic is being implemented.
In the course of our meetings today we outlined some concrete measures to raise the effectiveness of mutual work. We are not at all indifferent to how Serbia is going further to live. It is our leading partner in the Balkans. We are keen to cooperate not only in developing bilateral ties, but also in supporting efforts aimed at stabilizing this hugely important region. Of course, we can’t remain indifferent when a problem still persists in Serbia itself on whose solution not only the destiny of this country, but also that of the region, as well as the directions in which the conflicts in many other regions of the world are going to be settled, will depend. Any wrong, biased step can create extremely serious long-term adverse consequences. Solutions to the problem of Kosovo can therefore be only within international law and must be agreed upon between the parties themselves. Solutions which will be unilaterally imposed, especially from afar, by people who little understand the realities of this region, have no prospect at all.
Kostunica have just said that although resolution 1244 is a consensus UNSC decision, it is not being implemented. Therefore, before plunging into adventure, the Security Council is simply duty-bound to ensure that its previous decision, which laid the basis for settlement, is implemented in full. The Security Council’s mission to Belgrade and Pristina, which is being sent at Russia’s initiative, must give all the Security Council members an opportunity to see with their own eyes how the decisions of this highest body of the international community are being implemented. We will firmly insist that this mission see not a “Potemkin village” in the form of another series of briefings behind closed doors, but the real picture of how the minorities live in the Serbian province of Kosovo.
I hope that this trip and the upcoming review of the implementation of resolution 1244 to be held by the Security Council will help find a solution which will be fair and acceptable to all the sides. There is no need to say that the position in favor of finding agreement between the parties is constructive and positive. The position in favor of a unilateral imposition of any solution is confrontational.
We will remain in continuous contact with our Serbian colleagues and agree our actions on this and other questions of international life.
Question: Has Russia decided, will it put a veto if the UN Security Council adopts an absolutely unacceptable solution to Serbia?
Foreign Minister Lavrov: So far we have nothing to put a veto on. There are no draft resolutions in the Security Council so far. When they appear, we will be taking decisions on the basis of the clearly defined position which I have just stated. But we do not merely take the position of negating the plan of Martti Ahtisaari; we also have a constructive alternative. It consists in that the implementation of resolution 1244 and negotiations must be continued. In the Council, we will stand for this. Let others put a veto on it.
Question: Are you optimistic that Belgrade and Pristina will arrive at an agreement after all?
Foreign Minister Lavrov: I cannot decide for Belgrade and Pristina. I can only say that Russia firmly stands for continuation of negotiations. There will be no sustainable solution, unless there is an agreement. There will be no agreement, unless there are negotiations. That’s why we are for their continuation.
Question: On what must a solution between Belgrade and Pristina be based?
Foreign Minister Lavrov: A solution can be based only on what will be acceptable to Belgrade and Pristina. No one will decide for them. Undoubtedly, very important are international community efforts which would help the parties advance to such a compromise in an organized and, perhaps, a substantive way. In some cases such efforts with respect to other conflicts produce results. In some they fail. As, for example, did the well-known Cyprus settlement plan, which the UN Secretary General – Kofi Annan at the time – had advanced. The plan of Ahtisaari also failed. In both cases the reason behind the failure was the same – the absence of consideration for the interests of one of the parties, and the attempt via proposals being made as though on behalf of the UN to get unilateral solutions through. I hope that those who will continue negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina, and those who will help to continue holding them will take these lessons into account.
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